The Tomatometer score — based on the opinions of hundreds of film and television critics — is a trusted measurement of critical recommendation for millions of fans. It represents the percentage of professional critic reviews that are positive for a given film or television show.
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The Tomatometer is 60% or higher.
The Tomatometer is below 60%.
Movies and TV shows are Certified Fresh with a steady Tomatometer of 75% or
higher after a set amount of reviews (80 for wide-release movies, 40 for
limited-release movies, 20 for TV shows), including 5 reviews from Top Critics.
Percentage of users who rate a movie or TV show positively.
L. Frank Baum is one of the most fondly remembered of all children's book authors, for The Wonderful Wizard of Oz and the entire Land of Oz as depicted in a dozen subsequent books. He was also one of the most successful authors of children's books of his era, and among the very first in America to bring his own works to the screen; indeed, he worked as a screenwriter, director, and producer, and founded his own movie studio -- all activities growing directly out of the popularity of his early Oz books. Born in Chittenango, NY, in 1856, Lyman Frank Baum was the son of Benjamin Ward Baum, a wealthy speculator in oil, and the former Cynthia Stanton. A sickly child with a congenitally weak constitution, he was educated at home, and whatever allure formal learning might have held was banished by a two-year stay at the Peekskill Military Academy that ended with him suffering a heart attack in 1870, at age 14. Baum spent his teens writing a family newspaper and journals on stamp collecting and the breeding of exotic chickens. He did some acting in New York in the 1880s and, with his family's backing, produced his own play, The Maid of Arran. Baum became a children's book author by accident. His wife's mother asked him to write explanations of the nursery rhymes that he'd devised for his children. Those tales were published in 1897 as Mother Goose in Prose. He followed it two years later with Father Goose: His Book. When the elaborately devised volume proved too daunting a risk for any publisher, the author and illustrator together paid for the printing and enjoyed a bestseller. In 1900, Baum and Denslow published The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. It was so popular, that Baum was able to give up his other activities. Over the ensuing ten years, he wrote many dozens of further children's books, authored under a multitude of male and female pseudonyms, but it was the Oz books that immortalized him. Baum's original intent in writing the first Oz book was to create a new kind of fairy tale, American in origin and basis, and appealing to American children. He sought to reduce, if not eliminate, the influence of European folklore, and also to avoid the kind of moral lessons that weighted down the work of the Brothers Grimm and Hans Christian Andersen. Baum's stories teach self-reliance and optimism, as well as an attachment to home and family, without the grimly oppressive moral tone. Ironically, he was never in as good a financial condition as that string of successes would lead one to expect, because of various entertainment ventures that never earned a profit. But it was those losses and setbacks that made it necessary for Baum to continually expand and extend the world and stories of Oz. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz was brought to the Broadway stage by Baum in a 293-performance run that failed to make back its costs because of the expense of mounting it. Yet it was because of that theatrical production, and the popularity of a pair of comics -- David Montgomery and Fred Stone, as the Scarecrow and the Tin Woodman -- that Baum was obliged to extend his Oz stories. The Land of Oz (1904) focused on the Scarecrow and Tin Woodman, and also introduced a new character, Princess Ozma. It was a success as a book but a failure on-stage, and the losses incurred by the latter production forced Baum to extend his Oz stories still further. He published Ozma of Oz (1907), Dorothy and the Wizard of Oz (1908), and The Road to Oz (1909). In 1910, Baum moved his family west to the Los Angeles suburb of Hollywood. That same year, he wrote what he hoped would be the final Oz book, The Emerald City of Oz. His next two attempts at children's novels, The Sea Fairies (1911) and Sky Island (1912), were failures, however, and also coincided with Baum's declaration of bankruptcy. Finally, he succumbed to the inevitable. Unable to escape from the fantasy world he'd created, he declared himself the "Royal Historian of Oz" and wro