Production designer Mario Chiari was one of the world's premiere art directors. He originally studied architecture, but in the 1930s turned to set design. He first worked in theater and opera. He started in films as an assistant director and also began working as a co-writer for two Alessandro Blasetti films La Corona di Ferro (1941) and Fabiola (1948). He debuted as an art director with Dieterle's Volcano (1951). That year he also designed the costumes for De Sica's Miracle in Milan. Chiari went on to work with other distinguished directors such as Renoir, Fellini, Huston, and Visconti.