Paul Newman

Paul Newman

Highest Rated: 100% Harper (1966)

Lowest Rated: 0% When Time Ran Out (1980)

Birthday: Jan 26, 1925

Birthplace: Shaker Heights, Ohio, USA

An iconic figure in Hollywood history, Paul Newman was an Academy Award-winning actor, acclaimed director, and noted philanthropist who helped define the male lead in motion pictures from the mid-1950s through the 21st century. His charm, intelligence and strength informed a wide variety of roles, from underdog boxer Rocky Graziano in "Somebody Up There Likes Me" (1955) and the damaged Brick in "Cat on a Hot Tin Roof" (1958), to roguish antiheros like "Harper" (1966), "Cool Hand Luke" (1967) and Butch Cassidy in "Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid" (1969) - the latter of which showcased his famed partnership with Robert Redford. The two reprised their onscreen chemistry to great effect with the caper classic "The Sting" (1973). Of course, Newman was also admired for his 50-year marriage to actress Joanne Woodward, a rarity among Hollywood couples for its duration and lack of drama. He earned Oscar nominations for his roles in "Absence of Malice" (1981) and "The Verdict" (1982), finally winning for his turn as pool hall hustler Fast Eddie Felson in "The Color of Money" (1986). Newman's career slowed down following "The Hudsucker Proxy" (1994) and "Nobody's Fool" (1994) in favor of his philanthropic efforts through his Newman's Own brand of foods, which brought $300 million to educational charities. After earning praise for "Road to Perdition" (2002) and an Emmy for "Empire Falls" (HBO, 2005), Newman privately battled cancer until succumbing in 2008, leaving behind a legacy as one of the greatest screen icons of all time.

Photos

Highest Rated Movies

Filmography

Movies

Credit
69% 69% Cars 3 Doc Hudson (Voice) $152.9M 2017
73% 80% The Meerkats Teller (Voice) - 2008
74% 77% The Price of Sugar Narrator - 2007
No Score Yet 62% Mater and the Ghostlight Doc Hudson (Voice) - 2006
71% 78% Roving Mars Unknown (Character) $10.4M 2006
74% 79% Cars Doc Hudson (Voice) - 2006
No Score Yet 98% Dale Narrator - 2005
No Score Yet 75% Empire Falls Unknown (Character) - 2005
88% 66% Tell Them Who You Are Himself (Character) $38.6K 2004
100% 78% Our Town Unknown (Character) - 2003
81% 86% Road to Perdition John Rooney (Character) $104.1M 2002
48% 36% Where the Money Is Henry (Character) $5.7M 2000
32% 66% Message in a Bottle Dodge Blake (Character) $52.8M 1999
60% 30% Twilight Harry Ross (Character) $15M 1998
No Score Yet 83% Super Speedway Narrator - 1997
91% 81% Nobody's Fool Sully (Character) $38.3M 1994
59% 79% The Hudsucker Proxy Sidney J. Mussburger (Character) $2.1M 1994
80% 43% Mr. & Mrs. Bridge Walter Bridge (Character) $5M 1990
73% 48% Blaze Gov. Earl K. Long (Character) $19M 1989
47% 45% Fat Man and Little Boy Gen. Leslie R. Groves (Character) $3.3M 1989
73% 61% The Glass Menagerie Director $332.9K 1987
89% 73% The Color of Money Fast Eddie Felson (Character) $52.3M 1986
36% 35% Harry and Son Harry Keach (Character),
Director,
Producer
- 1984
No Score Yet No Score Yet Circuit Unknown (Character) - 1984
88% 88% The Verdict Frank Galvin (Character) - 1982
86% 66% Fort Apache, the Bronx Murphy (Character) - 1981
81% 63% Absence of Malice Gallagher (Character) - 1981
0% 20% When Time Ran Out Hank Henderson (Character) - 1980
No Score Yet No Score Yet The Shadow Box Director - 1980
20% 37% Quintet Essex (Character) - 1979
85% 89% Slap Shot Reggie Dunlop (Character) - 1977
67% 49% Buffalo Bill and the Indians William F. 'Buffalo Bill' Cody (Character) - 1976
80% 72% Silent Movie Himself (Character) - 1976
50% 49% The Drowning Pool Harper (Character) - 1975
69% 71% The Towering Inferno Doug Roberts (Character) - 1974
75% 83% The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds Director,
Producer
- 1973
58% 44% The Mackintosh Man Rearden (Character) - 1973
94% 95% The Sting Henry Gondorff (Character) - 1973
80% 75% The Life and Times of Judge Roy Bean Judge Roy Bean (Character) - 1972
57% 30% Pocket Money Jim Kane (Character) - 1972
75% 75% They Might Be Giants Producer - 1971
No Score Yet 38% WUSA Rheinhardt (Character),
Producer
- 1970
100% 76% Sometimes a Great Notion Hank Stamper (Character),
Director,
Executive Producer
- 1970
56% 45% Winning Frank Capua (Character) - 1969
90% 92% Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid Butch Cassidy (Robert Leroy Parker) (Character) - 1969
No Score Yet 50% The Secret War of Harry Frigg Pvt. Harry Frigg (Character) - 1968
86% 77% Rachel, Rachel Director,
Producer
- 1968
93% 80% Hombre John Russell (Character) - 1967
100% 95% Cool Hand Luke Luke (Character) - 1967
100% 74% Harper Lew Harper (Character) - 1966
67% 53% Torn Curtain Professor Michael Armstrong (Character) - 1966
29% 31% Lady L Armand Denis (Character) - 1965
22% 66% What a Way to Go! Larry Flint (Character) - 1964
No Score Yet 40% The Outrage Juan Carrasco (Character) - 1964
83% 89% Hud Hud Bannon (Character) - 1963
14% 51% A New Kind of Love Steve Sherman (Character) - 1963
50% 68% The Prize Andrew Craig (Character) - 1963
74% 72% Sweet Bird of Youth Chance Wayne (Character) - 1962
No Score Yet 55% Adventures of a Young Man The Battler (Character) - 1962
67% 67% Paris Blues Ram Bowen (Character) - 1961
98% 93% The Hustler "Fast" Eddie Felson (Character) - 1961
31% 58% From the Terrace David Alfred Eaton (Character) - 1960
63% 69% Exodus Ari Ben Canaan (Character) - 1960
71% 80% The Young Philadelphians Anthony Judson Lawrence/Narrator (Character) - 1959
90% 54% The Left Handed Gun Billy The Kid (Character) - 1958
89% 83% The Long, Hot Summer Ben Quick (Character) - 1958
97% 92% Cat on a Hot Tin Roof Brick Pollitt (Character) - 1958
30% 49% Rally 'Round the Flag, Boys! Harry Bannerman (Character) - 1958
No Score Yet 31% The Helen Morgan Story Larry Maddux (Character) - 1957
67% 64% Until They Sail Capt. Jack Harding (Character) - 1957
No Score Yet 50% The Rack Capt. Edward W. Hall Jr. (Character) - 1956
83% 86% Somebody Up There Likes Me Rocky (Character) - 1956
13% 19% The Silver Chalice Basil (Character) - 1954

TV

Credit
No Score Yet No Score Yet Empire Falls Max Roby (Character),
Executive Producer
2005
85% 76% The Simpsons Himself (Guest Voice) 2001
No Score Yet No Score Yet Inside the Actors Studio Guest 1994
No Score Yet No Score Yet What's My Line? Guest 1959
No Score Yet No Score Yet I've Got a Secret Guest 1956
No Score Yet No Score Yet Producers' Showcase Unknown (Character) 1955
No Score Yet No Score Yet The United States Steel Hour Tom Corey (Character) 1954
No Score Yet No Score Yet Suspense Unknown (Character) 1952
No Score Yet No Score Yet Tales of Tomorrow Unknown (Character) 1952

QUOTES FROM Paul Newman CHARACTERS

Frank Galvin says: I'm her attorney.

Eddie Felson says: You gotta have two things to win. You gotta have brains and you gotta have balls. Now, you got too much of one and not enough of the other.

Eddie Felson says: Money won is twice as sweet as money earned.

John Russell says: Hey, I got a question for you.

Cicero Grimes says: What's that?

John Russell says: How are you going to get down that hill?

Johnny Hooker says: Can you get a mob together?

Henry Gondorff says: After what happened to Luther I don't think I can get more than two, three hundred guys.

Henry Gondorff says: Sorry I'm late guys, I was taking a crap

Henry Gondorff says: Sorry I'm late guys, I was taking a crap.

Johnny Hooker says: He's not as tough as he thinks.

Henry Gondorff says: Neither are we.

Audra Favor says: Have you ever eaten a dog, Mr. Russell?

John Russell says: Eaten one and lived like one.

Eddie Felson says: Nine Ball is rotation pool. The balls are pocketed in numbered order. The only ball that means anything, that wins it, is the 9. Now, the player can shoot eight trick shots in a row, blow the nine and lose. On the other hand, the player can get the 9 in on the break, if the balls spread right, and win. Which is to say that luck plays a part in 9-Ball. But for some players... luck itself is an art.

Butch Cassidy says: I don't want to sound like a sore loser, but when it's over, if I'm dead, kill him.

The Sundance Kid says: With pleasure.

Lucas (Luke) Jackson says: Calling it a job don't make it right, boss.

John Rooney says: I'm glad it's you...

Butch Cassidy says: Let's you and me jump in that river.

Cicero Grimes says: Well now, what'ya suppose hell's gonna look like?

John Russell says: We all die, just a question of when.

Charlie Bums says: It's quiet.

"Fast" Eddie Felson says: Yeah, like a church. Church of the Good Hustler.

Charlie Bums says: It looks more like a morgue to me. Those tables are the slabs they lay the stiffs on.

"Fast" Eddie Felson says: I'll be alive when I get out, Charlie.

Henry Gondorff/Mr. Shaw says: Sorry fellas, I'm late because I had to take a crap.

Henry Gondorff/Mr. Shaw says: I'd been her sooner but I had to take a crap....

Henry Gondorff/Mr. Shaw says: I'd been her sooner but I had to take a crap.

Butch Cassidy says: I haven´t shot anybody!

Butch Cassidy says: I get sick being right all the time

Butch Cassidy says: I get sick being right all the time.

Butch Cassidy says: You know, when I was a kid, I always thought I was gonna grow up to be a hero.

The Sundance Kid says: Well, it's too late now.

Butch Cassidy says: hat'd you say something like that for? You didn't have to say something like that.

Butch Cassidy says: Boy, y'know, every time I see 'Hole in the Wall' again, it's like seeing it fresh for the first time, and every time that happens, I keep asking myself the same question, 'How can I be so damn stupid as to keep comin' back here?'

Butch Cassidy says: Do you believe I'm broke already?

Etta Place says: Why is there never any money, Butch?

Butch Cassidy says: Well, I swear, Etta, I don't know. I've been working like a dog all my life and I can't get a penny ahead

Etta Place says: Sundance says it's because you're a soft touch, and always taking expensive vacations, and buying drinks for everyone, and you're a rotten gambler.

Butch Cassidy says: Well that might have something to do with it.

The Sundance Kid says: What I'm saying is, if you want to go, I won't stop you. But the minute you start to whine or make a nuisance, I don't care where we are, I'm dumping you flat.

Butch Cassidy says: Don't sugarcoat it like that, Kid. Tell her straight.

Etta Place says: I'm 26, and I'm single, and a school teacher, and that's the bottom of the pit. And the only excitement I've known is here with me now. I'll go with you, and I won't whine, and I'll sew your socks, and I'll stitch you when you're wounded, and I'll do anything you ask of me except one thing. I won't watch you die. I'll miss that scene if you don't mind.

Butch Cassidy says: We're going to run out unless we can get to that mule and get some more.

The Sundance Kid says: I'll go.

Butch Cassidy says: This is no time for bravery. I'll let ya!

Butch Cassidy says: Wait a minute — you didn't see Lefors out there did you?

The Sundance Kid says: Lefors? No, why?

Butch Cassidy says: Thank God for that. For a moment there I thought we were in trouble.

"Fast" Eddie Felson says: You still don't see it, do you, Charlie? You are nothing but a small-time Charlie. You'd love to keep me hustling for you, huh? Wouldn't ya? I mean, a couple more years with me, scuffling around them little towns and those back alleys. You might make yourself enough to get a little poolroom back in Oakland. Six tables and a handbook on the side. Is that when you say goodbye to me, Charlie?

"Fast" Eddie Felson says: You look beautiful, Fats. Just like a baby ...all pink, and powdered up.

Charlie Bums says: What are you trying to do, Eddie? You beat him. You beat him bad. You wanna kill yourself?

"Fast" Eddie Felson says: What are ya, chicken, Charlie?

Charlie Bums says: Well, maybe that's it. I'm chicken.

"Fast" Eddie Felson says: Go on home. Just leave me the money.

Charlie Bums says: Go to hell.

"Fast" Eddie Felson says: Charlie, boy, you better give me that money. C'mon now, give it to me. It's mine.

Charlie Bums says: Okay, here ... (slaps money into Eddie's hand) Be a damn fool.

Charlie Bums says: Okay, here ... [slaps money into Eddie's hand] Be a damn fool.

"Fast" Eddie Felson says: Too high, Bert. Price is too high. Because if I take it, she never lived, she never died. And we both know that's not true, Bert, don't we, huh? She lived, she died. Boy, you better. You tell your boys they better kill me, Bert. They better go all the way with me. Because if they just bust me up, I'll put all those pieces back together again, and so help me, so help me God, Bert ... I'm gonna come back here and I'm gonna kill you.

Sarah Packard says: Doesn't all of this come through to you, Eddie? Doesn't any of this mean anything to you? That man, this place, the people. They wear masks, Eddie. And underneath the masks they're perverted, twisted, crippled.

"Fast" Eddie Felson says: Shut up. His eyes are shut tight; his balled-up fists rub against his temples.

Sarah Packard says: (moving to him) Don't wear a mask, Eddie. You don't have to. (points to Bert) That's Turk, Eddie, the man who broke your thumbs. Only he's not going to break your thumbs. He'll break your heart, your guts. And for the same reason -- 'cause he hates you, 'cause of what you are. 'Cause of what you have and he hasn't.

Sarah Packard says: [moving to him] Don't wear a mask, Eddie. You don't have to. [points to Bert] That's Turk, Eddie, the man who broke your thumbs. Only he's not going to break your thumbs. He'll break your heart, your guts. And for the same reason -- 'cause he hates you, 'cause of what you are. 'Cause of what you have and he hasn't.

"Fast" Eddie Felson says: (rises) Would you get off my back, Sarah? Once and for all, will you get out, will you GET OFF MY BACK?!

"Fast" Eddie Felson says: [rises] Would you get off my back, Sarah? Once and for all, will you get out, will you GET OFF MY BACK?!

Bert Gordon says: Go ahead and play him, Eddie. Play him for a thousand dollars a game.

Sarah Packard says: Doesn't your lighter work, Mr. Gordon?

Bert Gordon says: (smiling politely) Oh, I forgot all about it. (to Eddie, who still holds the flame) How's the hands?

Bert Gordon says: [smiling politely] Oh, I forgot all about it. [to Eddie, who still holds the flame] How's the hands?

"Fast" Eddie Felson says: Fine.

Bert Gordon says: Good. I'd hate to think I was putting my money on a cripple.

"Fast" Eddie Felson says: (angrily) Hey, whaddya say something like that for?

"Fast" Eddie Felson says: [angrily] Hey, whaddya say something like that for?

Sarah Packard says: It's all right, Eddie. I'm sure Mr. Gordon meant no offense. It was a figure of speech.

Bert Gordon says: That's right, Miss Packard.

Sarah Packard says: And a fact is a fact.

Bert Gordon says: She's a smart girl, Eddie.

Bert Gordon says: I don't think there's a pool player alive shoots better pool than I saw you shoot the other night at Ames. You got talent.

Bert Gordon says: I don't think there's a pool player alive shoots better pool than I saw you shoot the other night at Ames. You got talent.

"Fast" Eddie Felson says: So I got talent. So what beat me?

Bert Gordon says: Character.

"Fast" Eddie Felson says: (laughs) Yeah. Sure, sure.

"Fast" Eddie Felson says: [laughs] Yeah. Sure, sure.

Bert Gordon says: You're damned right I'm sure. Everybody's got talent. I got talent. You think you can play big-money straight pool, or poker, for forty straight hours on nothing but talent? You think they call Minnesota Fats the best in the country just 'cause he's got talent? Nah. Minnesota Fats's got more character in one finger than you got in your whole skinny body.

Bert Gordon says: You're damned right I'm sure. Everybody's got talent. I got talent. You think you can play big-money straight pool, or poker, for forty straight hours on nothing but talent? You think they call Minnesota Fats the best in the country just 'cause he's got talent? Nah. Minnesota Fats's got more character in one finger than you got in your whole skinny body.

"Fast" Eddie Felson says: But we twisted it, didn't we, Bert? Maybe that doesn't stick in your throat 'cause you spit it out just like everything else! But it sticks in mine. I loved her, Bert. I traded her in on a pool game. That wouldn't mean anything to you, because who did you ever care about? "Win", you said. You don't know what winning is. You're a loser. 'Cause you're dead inside. You can't live unless you make everything else dead around you! Too high, Bert. The price is too high. If I take it, she never lived. She never died.

"Fast" Eddie Felson says: But we twisted it, didn't we, Bert? Maybe that doesn't stick in your throat 'cause you spit it out just like everything else! But it sticks in mine. I loved her, Bert. I traded her in on a pool game. That wouldn't mean anything to you, because who did you ever care about? 'Win', you said. You don't know what winning is. You're a loser. 'Cause you're dead inside. You can't live unless you make everything else dead around you! Too high, Bert. The price is too high. If I take it, she never lived. She never died.

"Fast" Eddie Felson says: Fat man. You shoot a great game of pool.

Minnesota Fats says: So do you, Fast Eddie.

John Russell says: maybe I'll see you at Delmonicos

John Russell says: Maybe I'll see you at Delmonicos.

John Russell says: you ever been hungry lady? not just ready for dinner hungry, but so hungry that your belly stands out?

John Russell says: You ever been hungry lady? Not just ready for dinner hungry, but so hungry that your belly stands out?

John Russell says: I guess I brought my dirty laundry by mistake

John Russell says: I guess I brought my dirty laundry by mistake.

Brick Pollitt says: We're through with lies and liars in this house. Now lock the door.

John Russell says: John Russell (referring to Audra Favor who is tied to a stick in the hot sun) : Ask her if she'd eat dog now.

John Russell says: [referring to Audra Favor who is tied to a stick in the hot sun] Ask her if she'd eat dog now.

John Russell says: Audra Favor: Have you ever eaten dog, Mr. Russell? John Russell: Eaten one and lived like one.

Reggie Dunlop says: They brought their fuckin' toys with 'em.

Eddie Felson says: You gotta have two things to win. You gotta have brains and you gotta have balls. Now, you got too much of one and not enough of the other.

Eddie Felson says: Do you smell that?

Vincent Lauria says: Smoke?

Carmen says: No, Money.

Eddie Felson says: Straight pool is pool. This is like handball...or cribbage or something. Straight pool you got to be a real surgeon...to get it-- You know, it's all finesse. Now everything is nine ball because it's fast...good for TV...good for a lot of break shots. Oh, well. What the hell. Checkers sells more than chess.

Eddie Felson says: You got to be a student...of human moves. See, all the greats that I know of...were students of human moves.

Eddie Felson says: You're some piece of work. You're also a natural character.

Vincent Lauria says: I've been telling her that. I got natural character.

Eddie Felson says: That's not what I said, kid. I said you are a natural character. You're an incredible flake. But that's a gift. Guys spend half their lives inventing that.

Eddie Felson says: If you got an area of excellence... you're the best at something, anything... then rich can be arranged. Rich can come fairly easy.

Eddie Felson says: Hey, I'm back.

"Fast" Eddie Felson says: Get on me Bert, I can't lose.

Brick Pollitt says: But, how in hell on earth can you imagine you're gonna have a child with a man who cannot stand you.

Brick Pollitt says: What is the victory of a cat on a hot tin roof??

Brick Pollitt says: What is the victory of a cat on a hot tin roof?

Maggie Pollitt says: Just stayin' on it, I guess....as long as she can.

Audra Favor says: Jessie: And we got him a marble headstone. It had his name on it, and underneath, we had them put, "In the Fullness of His Years." Is that all right with you? John Russell: I'll settle for that. I'm not on the slab. Jessie: Well, what do you figure yours is going to read? John Russell: "Shot Dead," probably. Jessie: Don't people take to you, Mr. Russell? John Russell: It only takes one who doesn't.

Jessie Brown says: Jessie: And we got him a marble headstone. It had his name on it, and underneath, we had them put, 'In the Fullness of His Years.' Is that all right with you?

John Russell says: I'll settle for that. I'm not on the slab.

Jessie Brown says: Well, what do you figure yours is going to read?

John Russell says: 'Shot Dead,' probably.

Jessie Brown says: Don't people take to you, Mr. Russell?

John Russell says: It only takes one who doesn't.

Alma Brown says: Hud Bannon: You're half native already. I've never seen you in a pair of shoes since you have work here. Alma Brown: I wore'em once. I think to get married in. White satin pumps. I don't have'em anymore or the man

Hud Bannon says: Hud Bannon: You're half native already. I've never seen you in a pair of shoes since you have work here.

Alma Brown says: I wore'em once. I think to get married in. White satin pumps. I don't have'em anymore or the man.

Alma Brown says: Hud Bannon: Man like that sounds no better than a heel. Alma Brown: Aren't you all? Hud Bannon: Honey don't go shooting all the dogs 'cause one of 'em's got fleas. Alma Brown: I was married to Ed for six years. Only thing he was ever good for was to scratch my back where I couldn't reach it. Hud Bannon: You still got that itch? Alma Brown: Off and on. Hud Bannon: Well let me know when it gets to bothering you.

Hud Bannon says: Hud Bannon: Man like that sounds no better than a heel.

Alma Brown says: Aren't you all?

Hud Bannon says: Honey don't go shooting all the dogs 'cause one of 'em's got fleas.

Alma Brown says: I was married to Ed for six years. Only thing he was ever good for was to scratch my back where I couldn't reach it.

Hud Bannon says: You still got that itch?

Alma Brown says: Off and on.

Hud Bannon says: Well let me know when it gets to bothering you.

"Fast" Eddie Felson says: "We really stuck it in her didn't we Findlay"

"Fast" Eddie Felson says: We really stuck it in her didn't we Findlay?

Butch Cassidy says: (To Sundance, upon being challenged to a knife fight by the massive Logan) "Maybe there's a way to make a profit from this. . . (sighs) bet on Logan."

Butch Cassidy says: [to Sundance, upon being challenged to a knife fight by the massive Logan] Maybe there's a way to make a profit from this... [sighs] bet on Logan.

The Sundance Kid says: "I would, but who'd bet on you?"

The Sundance Kid says: I would, but who'd bet on you?

Brick Pollitt says: How do you expect to have a baby with a man who can't stand you?

Butch Cassidy says: What happened to the OLD bank? IT was beautiful. [the name was changed to deter bank robbers]

The Sundance Kid says: Think ya used enough dynamite there, Butch?

Butch Cassidy says: Kid, there's something I ought to tell you. I never shot anybody before.

Butch Cassidy says: Boy, I got vision, and the rest of the world wears bifocals.

Butch Cassidy says: If he'd just pay me what he's spending to make me stop robbing him, I'd stop robbing him.

The Sundance Kid says: I can't swim. [to Butch]

Butch Cassidy says: replies: Are you crazy? The fall will probably kill you.

Eddie Felson says: Money won is twice as sweet as money earned.

Doc Hudson says: What do you want, Sally?

Brick Pollitt says: Is it, Maggie?

Butch Cassidy says: Is that what you call giving cover?

The Sundance Kid says: Is that what you call running? If I knew you were going to stroll...

Homer Bannon says: You're an unprincipled man, Hud.

Homer Bannon says: You're an unprincipled young man Hud.

Hud Bannon says: Don't let that worry you none. You got enough for both of us.

Henry Gondorff/Mr. Shaw says: "Four jacks."

Henry Gondorff/Mr. Shaw says: Four jacks.

John Russell says: How you gonna get down that hill?

John Russell says: How are you planning to get back down that hill?

Lucas (Luke) Jackson says: "sometimes nothing can be a real cool hand"

Lucas (Luke) Jackson says: Sometimes nothing can be a real cool hand.

Hud Bannon says: I'll remember you, honey. You're the one that got away.

Butch Cassidy says: Kid, the next time I say, ?Let's go someplace like Bolivia,? let's go someplace like Bolivia.

Butch Cassidy says: Kid, the next time I say, 'Let's go someplace like Bolivia,' let's go someplace like Bolivia.

Butch Cassidy says: "I got vision and the rest of the world wears bi-focals".